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(多图) 可编程模拟电路提供单片机正弦振荡器设计方案

来源:EDN/作者:Stefano Salvatori and Paolo Lorenzi?? University of Rome?? Rome?? Italy?? 2007年09月05日 ?? 收藏0

  Resistors within the ispPAC10 are fixed at a nominal 250 kΩ, and all capacitors are user-selectable from 1.07 to 61.59 pF. Figure 1 shows an ispPAC10 with its internal blocks 1, 2, and 4 connected as a cascade of three first-order lowpass filters to form a classic phase-shift RC oscillator. Altering the capacitors' values produces oscillation frequencies over a range of 1

8 to 130 kHz. Each PAC block's gain is fixed at a factor of two to obtain a loop gain of –8, which Barkhausen's condition for oscillation requires (Reference 2). Configured from Block 3, a first-order lowpass filter reduces the THD (total harmonic distortion) on the oscillator's output. The values of capacitors in Block 3 are optimized for filtering performance and thus differ from those of the phase-shift stages.

  The circuit in Figure 2 describes a two-integrator loop that forms a classic quadrature-RC oscillator. The circuit's oscillation frequency spans 12 to 126 kHz and depends on the time constants of the integrators that blocks 1 and 2 form. In theory, each integrator's gain should have an absolute value of unity, but, in practice, ispPAC allows specification only of inverting integrators, and producing a stable sinusoidal signal requires a gain of at least –4 in Block 1. The circuit uses a gain of –10. Two additional blocks of the ispPAC10 device form a second-order lowpass filter that decreases the output's THD. In both oscillator circuits, you can alter the lowpass filters' gain so that the circuit's outputs deliver specific voltages, such as 1V p-p, at all frequencies.

  Table 1 and Table 2, respectively, contain summaries of the phase-shift and quadrature oscillators' components and output characteristics. CN refers to the value of the capacitor used in the nth PAC block for oscillation at frequency f0. The design uses a Tektronix TDS1002 digital oscilloscope's FFT function to measure THD and the spectral line width of each output frequency at a level of –20 dB with respect to the central frequency, f0.

  Figure 3 illustrates the application of a microcontroller to dynamically reconfigure an ispPAC-based oscillator for specific frequencies. The nonvolatile memory stores frequency-specific capacitance and gain values for each of the ispPAC10's circuit blocks. Data transfers occur using the IEEE 1149.1 JTAG-standard protocol through the ispPAC10's serial test-access-port interface.

  References

  PAC Designer software, www.latticesemi.com.

  http://jlnlabs.imars.com/spgen/barkhausen.htm.?

  英文原文地址:http://www.edn.com/article/CA6298269.html


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可编程模拟电路? 单片机? 正弦振荡器?

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