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来源:EDN/作者:Anthony H Smith?? Scitech?? Bedfordshire?? England?? 2007年08月15日 ?? 收藏0

  Components C1, R1, R2, and Q1 provide an alternative solution. On power- up, C1 initially discharges, causing Q1 to turn on, thereby clamping the reference input to 0V and preventing the inrush current from tripping the circuit. C1 then charges through R1 and R2 until Q1 eventually turns off, releasing the clamp at the reference input and allowing the circuit to respond rapidly to overcurrent transients. With the values of C1, R1, and R2, the circuit allows approximately 400 msec for the inrush current to subside. Selecting other values allows the circuit to accommo

date any duration of inrush current you apply to a load. Once you trip the circuit breaker, you can reset it either by cycling the power or by pressing S1, the reset switch, which connects across C1. If your application requires no inrush protection, simply omit C1, R1, R2, and Q1 and connect S1 between the reference input and 0V.

  When choosing components, make sure that all parts are properly rated for the voltage and current levels they will encounter. The bipolar transistors have no special requirements, although these transistors, especially Q2 and Q3, should have high current gain, Q4 should have low on-resistance, and Q4’s maximum drain-to-source and gate-to-source voltages must be commensurate with the maximum value of supply voltage. You can use almost any small-signal diode for D1. As a precaution, it may be necessary to fit zener diodes D3 and D4 to protect D2 if extremely large transient voltages are likely.

  Although this circuit uses the 431 device, which is widely available from different manufacturers, for D2, not all of these parts behave in exactly the same way. For example, tests on a Texas Instruments TL431CLP and a Zetex ZR431CL reveal that the cathode current is 0A for both devices when the reference voltage is 0V. However, gradually increasing the reference voltage from 2.2 to 2.45V produces a change in cathode current ranging from 220 to 380 ?A for the TL431CLP and 23 to 28 ?A for the ZR431CL—roughly a factor of 10 difference between the two devices. You must take this difference in the magnitude of the cathode current into account when selecting values for R7 and R8.

  The type of device you use for D2 and the values you select for R7 and R8 can also have an effect on response time. A test circuit with a TL431CLP, in which R7 is 1 kΩ and R8 is 4.7 kΩ, responds within 550 nsec to an overcurrent transient. Replacing the TL431CLP with a ZR431CL results in a response time of approximately 1 ?sec. Increasing R7 and R8 by an order of magnitude to 10 and 47 kΩ, respectively, produces a response time of 2.8 ?sec. Note that the relatively large cathode current of the TL431CLP requires correspondingly small values of R7 and R8.

  To set the overvoltage-trip level at 18V, R3 and R4 must have values of 62 and 10 kΩ, respectively. The test circuit then produces the following results: Using a TL431CLP for D2, the circuit trips at 17.94V, and, using a ZR431CL for D2, the trip level is 18.01V. Depending on Q2’s base-emitter voltage, the overcurrent-detection mechanism is less precise than the overvoltage function. However, the overcurrent-detection accuracy greatly improves by replacing R6 and Q2 with a high-side current-sense amplifier that generates a ground-referred current proportional to load current. These devices are available from Linear Technology, Maxim, Texas Instruments, Zetex, and others.

  The circuit breaker should prove useful in applications such as automotive systems that require overcurrent detection to protect against faulty loads and that also need overvoltage protection to shield sensitive circuitry from high-energy-load-dump transients. Other than the small current flowing in R3 and R4 and the current in D2’s cathode, the circuit draws no current from the supply in its normal, untripped state.


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